To quote TomCat: "Almost every week, Republicans join a competition to see who can say the most outlandish things, and in the process, they push the envelope on just how despicable InsaniTEA can become. I trust that you will believe it, when I tell you that last week was no exception."
The week was overflowing with right-wing assholery mixed with a generous dollop of buffoonery. As Trump’s inevitability grew stronger, he launched his sexist Hillary-bashing campaign in earnest.
4. Glenn Beck reacted entirely reasonably to John Boehner’s criticism of Ted Cruz.
Oh, hahahahaha. No he didn’t. He covered his face in Cheeto dust.
It was a hard week for Beck. First, his “divinely inspired” boy Ted Cruz lost all five states to Donald Trump on Tuesday, giving Cruz no realistic shot whatsoever at the nomination. Then Cruz named his vice presidential running mate anyway, the immensely likable Carly Fiorina, who sang a song that reminded everyone of an evil witch in a fairy tale. Then Cruz stunned everyone in Indiana with his stupidity about basketball. Then John Boehner made a rare appearance and told his truth about Ted, which is that he is “Lucifer in the flesh” and a “miserable son of a bitch.”
In a dazzling act of protest against the conspiracy of the orange men, Trump and Boehner, and to simulate their hue, a begoggled Beck performed a faceplant in a bowl of Cheeto dust.
Wanna see? Here’s video that will not scare the children, although it may make you lose your lunch.
I completed the Alzheimer's Walk for Memories on Sunday 01/05/2016 but managed to do in my knee. It was swollen to the size of a grapefruit and I managed to mess up my hamstring where it connects to my left knee on the lateral side. I was scolded by my physio for overdoing it, but the walk was only 2 km. I did raise $1,645 and our little team raised $8,000. So I am happy! Not only did our fundraising go over the top, but so did the temperatures. It was about 27 C (80 F) and yesterday was just as bad. I am using my laptop more but have not figured out how to highlight something for copy/paste. Copy/paste is no big deal using the keyboard commands. Another nice part of the laptop is the touch screen. I'll have to remember to never eat a sticky cinnamon bun while using the laptop.
Huffington Post — Mark Salter, who served as chief of staff to Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.) and worked as an adviser on both of McCain’s presidential campaigns, says he’ll be supporting Hillary Clinton over Donald Trump this fall. …
In a January Esquire essay, he [Salter] described the candidate as “a cartoon villain, a fake, a cheat, a liar, a creep, a bullying, bragging, bullshitting, blowhard kind of asshole.”
How's that for a ringing endorsement?
Raw Story — An online petition to boycott Target over the store’s policy that transgender individuals can use the bathroom corresponding with their gender identity has gathered more than 1 million signatures. Conservative activists said they are worried that men will take advantage of the policy and enter women’s restrooms.
It turns out they may be right that some men are taking advantage of the policy — but those men are the conservative activists.
This really is getting rather ridiculous in my view. When I think back to my pre-teen years, there were no cautionary signs on the doors that men could not enter, yet I am sure there were transgendered people then too. If a man wants to enter a women's bathroom for other than peeing, he will find a way. What are the bathroom police going to do to monitor this? . . . stand at the door and say to everyone to "drop your drawers" before they can enter?? And lest I be seen as sexist, what about predatory females in the men's restroom? What about pedofiles in either bathroom?
George Carlin has always been a favourite of mine. And although he uses a lot of blue language, he gets to the truth very quickly.
Daily Kos — Never one to be timid with her political views, singer, actor, director, and activist Barbra Streisand, decided to chime in on one of the many alleged conspiracy theories (CT) against Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton. One of the latest CTs circulating charges that the former New York senator and U.S. Secretary of State is holding back some deep dark secrets contained within her Goldman Sachs speech transcripts, based on the fact that Clinton was paid well. Streisand, who is a proclaimed Hillary Clinton supporter, feminist, and Medal of Freedom recipient tweets:
I'm back again. I have my course in liberal biblical studies tonight which is interesting but somewhat time intensive — 4 hours of homework in addition to 3 hours of class time plus dinner each week. The course goes for another four weeks after tonight. Tomorrow is teaching at Lucia's house, and then Sunday is the Alzheimer's Walk for Memories and a visit with my mother. Once the course is done, I'll have a bit more time.
NY Times — Senator Ted Cruz of Texas often casts himself as the rightful heir to Ronald Reagan’s mantle of conservatism, and on Wednesday he took a page directly out of the former president’s playbook.
By tapping Carly Fiorina to be his running mate, Mr. Cruz becomes the first presidential candidate since Reagan to name a vice-presidential pick without having the nomination locked up. In 1976, Reagan teamed up with Richard S. Schweiker, a Pennsylvania senator, in a desperate attempt to grab the nomination from President Gerald R. Ford as it was slipping away. At that point, Mr. Ford’s delegate lead had become virtually insurmountable.
Rachel had this to say about Cruz's announcement.
Carly Fiorina?? The word 'dafted' comes to mind as a description for Cruz. He is trying to reignite his campaign but he may just blow it up! After all, this tactic didn't work so well for the patron saint of Republicans, Saint Ronnie Reagan in 1978. He lost to Gerald Ford who then lost the general election to Jimmy Carter.
Defense officials tell The Daily Beast that U.S. special operators have killed 40 “external operations leaders, planners, and facilitators” blamed for instigating, plotting, or funding ISIS’s attacks from Brussels and Paris to Egypt and Africa.
That’s less than half the overall number of ISIS targets that special operators have taken off the battlefield, one official explained, including top leaders like purported ISIS second-in-command Haji Imam, killed in March.
The previously unpublished number provides a rare glimpse into the U.S. counterterrorist mission that is woven into overall coalition efforts to defeat ISIS, and which is credited with crippling ISIS efforts to recruit foreign fighters and carry out more plots like the deadly assault on Paris that killed 130 last fall.
As proof of the campaign’s overall success, Pentagon officials this week said the influx of foreign fighters into Iraq and Syria had dropped from up to 2,000 a month last year to just 200, and the overall size of ISIS from a high estimate of 33,000 a year ago to between 19,000 to 25,000 fighters.
I spoke with an Iraqi woman yesterday who said that she hoped Trump would become POTUS for only one reason . . . he'd go after ISIS. Well I don't support her choice of Trump and told her so. But no worries, she lives in Canada. She is sick of the destruction of her native country by ISIS and is quick to say that ISIS does not believe in Islam. They are about power and greed, nothing more.
Alternet — White, who’d been sickened by the debilitating, irreversible and often fatal disease at work in a foundry, watched in disgust as Republicans attempted to overturn the rule that the Labor Department said could save more than 600 lives and prevent more than 900 new cases of silicosis annually.
The totals aren’t in for 2015 yet, but the year before, 4,679 workers died on the job. That’s nearly 90 a week, 13 a day, seven days a week. Twenty-eight members of my own union, the USW, died on the job since Workers Memorial Day 2015.
But the GOP position is clear. Republicans will do whatever it takes to ensure that corporations can sicken and kill workers with impunity. (emphasis added) If the argument is that workers’ lives and lungs must be sacrificed to ensure that foundries and fracking operations and construction companies can make bigger profits by releasing silica particles under 40-year-old standards now considered dangerous, then the GOP will take the side of CEOs who value workers as trivial.
This one image from TC says it all:
My Universe — There is nothing cuter than baby animals. Be prepared for the Aww factor! Here are just a few but click through for the rest of them.
There has been and is so much talk by Drumpf about building a wall, a BIG wall, on the US – Mexico border. Here is John Oliver on Drumpf's southern wall.
And at one time, Scott Walker floated the not so new idea of building a wall on the Canada – US border, which Drumpf momentarily supported. This 09/2011 Huffington Post article should make you wonder. Walker was just the most recent iteration of that debate.
"The United States is looking at building fences along the border with Canada to help keep out terrorists and other criminals."
This is all in support of national security. But I would rather think of it as being in support of national xenophobia.
But what is the Canada – US border? It really is quite funny and interesting.
The line between Canada and the United States is renowned for being the longest undefended border in the world but, as Canadian photographer Andreas Rutkauskas discovered on an epic road trip, there's more to it than meets the eye. …
"My goal was to present the border as something which is bucolic and porous and that's not necessarily the way it is," he said. "Most of the photographs in the project, they look benign and innocent as if you could just walk from one nation to another. But that's really not the case."
Before or after almost every shot Rutkauskas had an encounter with someone from U.S. Border Patrol, the RCMP or the Canada Border Services Agency.
Some were helpful, even moving their cars so he could get the shot he wanted, and giving him recommendations on where to go next. They made it clear, however, what he could and could not take pictures of because of security restrictions.
With others, he had "heated conversations" and those came when Rutkauskas stood in "no man's land."
While the main western crossing is The Peace Arch crossing at Surrey, BC and Blaine, WA, there is a small crossing at Point Roberts, WA — Point Roberts being a "mistake" made by the Border Commission. And of course there are crossings with BC – Alaska and the Yukon – Alaska.
And then there are the towns of Stanstead, Que., and Derby Line, Vermont. The border runs through these two adjoined communities, sometimes even through buildings.
A thick, white line separating Canada and the U.S. runs between the towns. Not only does it appear on streets and properties, but it also runs through some buildings, like the Haskell Free Library and Opera House (left), which was intentionally built on the boundary in 1904 so that both Canadians and Americans could use it. From Canadian Geographic
Andreas Rutkauskas shot this photo of the Okanogan National Forest at the Washington State-British Columbia border on his cross-country journey of the border, which he said brought his childhood geography lessons to life. (Andreas Rutkauskas)
At this border crossing between Emerson, Man., and Pembina, N.D., X-ray imaging scanners are used to inspect railway cars. (Andreas Rutkauskas)
Please check out the photos in the CBC article. There are some magnificent shots.
So it has been almost 2 weeks since I last published an article, not because I did not want to, but because I have been very, very busy with all sorts of activities. Something had to give and it was publishing. Last Sunday during a church service, five of us were commissioned and anointed into the ministry of pastoral care having finished our training and police background checks. Of course I have been teaching and attending physio. Last Friday, I looked after Lucia's two youngest while Lucia took some "me time". I was totally wasted by the afternoon when Lucia returned. What's more, I managed to escape a nuclear diaper! I'll do the same next week so Lucia can be with Loliyo at a dance competition. There are also routine things like doctor's and dentist's appointments, and the most important, snuggles with the fur babies. I still have to do the taxes but since neither of us owe any, it isn't a big worry.
The Nation — Global warming is, in the end, not about the noisy political battles here on the planet’s surface. It actually happens in constant, silent interactions in the atmosphere, where the molecular structure of certain gases traps heat that would otherwise radiate back out to space. If you get the chemistry wrong, it doesn’t matter how many landmark climate agreements you sign or how many speeches you give. And it appears the United States may have gotten the chemistry wrong. Really wrong. …
In February, Harvard researchers published an explosive paper in Geophysical Research Letters. Using satellite data and ground observations, they concluded that the nation as a whole is leaking methane in massive quantities. Between 2002 and 2014, the data showed that US methane emissions increased by more than 30 percent, accounting for 30 to 60 percent of an enormous spike in methane in the entire planet’s atmosphere. …
These leaks are big enough to wipe out a large share of the gains from the Obama administration’s work on climate change—all those closed coal mines and fuel-efficient cars. In fact, it’s even possible that America’s contribution to global warming increased during the Obama years. The methane story is utterly at odds with what we’ve been telling ourselves, not to mention what we’ve been telling the rest of the planet. It undercuts the promises we made at the climate talks in Paris. It’s a disaster—and one that seems set to spread.
The Obama administration, to its credit, seems to be waking up to the problem. Over the winter, the EPA began to revise its methane calculations, and in early March, the United States reached an agreement with Canada to begin the arduous task of stanching some of the leaks from all that new gas infrastructure. But none of this gets to the core problem, which is the rapid spread of fracking. Carbon dioxide is driving the great warming of the planet, but CO2 isn’t doing it alone. It’s time to take methane seriously.
MSNBC — I found this interesting segment of The Rachel Maddow Show that showcases some of the Republican bigotry, racism and total lack of sensitivity to history.
Politico — Republicans over the past seven years have come to view Barack Obama not just as an ideological enemy but as a “dictator”—an accusation hurled most recently by both Chris Christie and Glenn Beck—a president who has unconstitutionally abused his executive power with an array of unilateral actions.
But Republicans are hardly passive victims of an overweening executive; they are, in fact, paying for their own unilateral surrender of power. The GOP-dominated Congress has sought to weaken and undermine Obama and instead has achieved the opposite. Unable to pass significant legislation after the Affordable Care Act, the Obama White House filled the vacuum by creative use of executive authority, setting a potentially risky precedent for the future balance between the branches but spurred, ironically, by the very opponents who were trying to contain him.
Is this where we get to say to Republicans "You reap what you sow!"? Personally, I do not see Obama as a dictator, but rather a man trapped by the incompetence and beligerence of political foes . . . foes willing to ruin the country in order to stick to their idiotological principles.
You may view cats as evil creatures, and you may not be entirely wrong with that assumption. Still, you may not realize that owning a cat actually has a variety of benefits for you and your health. These are just a few reasons why you should open your home to a cat.
BTW, people don't own cats. Dogs have owners. Cats have staff!
3. They Do Not Need Baths
Giving cats a bath is not a fun experience. Fortunately, unlike dogs, cats really do not need baths. They are huge neat freaks that frequently groom themselves, making bathing unnecessary. This also goes back to the whole “low maintenance thing”. If you do dare to bath a cat, be sure to wear complete padding because this can get pretty messy though the results are pretty hilarious.
7. They Make Fantastic Alarm Clocks
When cats want their breakfast, they want it now. They do not care if you are sleeping, they will wake you up. In fact, they do not even need to have breakfast for an excuse to wake you up. They will wake you up for whatever reason they have decided to wake you up and you will have to deal with that.
11. They Will Keep You Grounded
All of those jokes about how cats think humans are their slaves? These are completely accurate. Cats believe that you are merely there to serve them and their needs. This will help put you in your place whenever you feel that you are better than you are.
Click through for the other 17 reasons you need at least one cat in your life.
Almost every week, Republicans join a competition to see who can say the most outlandish things, and in the process, they push the envelope on just how despicable InsaniTEA can become. I trust that you will believe it, when I tell you that last week was no exception.
Pat Boone has completely lost touch with reality.
In case you were wondering what singer and actor Pat Boone has been doing lately, the answer is losing his mind. The celebrity-turned-conservative activist has made it his mission in life to destroy a very great evil in the world: Saturday Night Live.
Now, we’re the first to admit that Saturday Night Live has not been up to snuff for a while in the comedy department. Kate McKinnon is great and does a pretty good Hillary, but hasn’t Kenan Thompson reached his sell-by date yet? Weekend Update is getting better, but still pretty meh.
But it turns out Boone’s criticism is just a tad harsher than the show’s failure to tickle his funny bone. After viewing a recent skit about how "God is definitely gay," Boone called the show “blasphemy,” and said the cast is “Satanic” and “bound for hell.”
In an interview [pseudo-liberal delinked] last night with Alan Colmes, Boone said that “there should be regulations that prohibit blasphemy” and that the Federal Communications Commission should punish networks that air such blasphemous programming.
When Colmes asked if he would “like the FCC to declare that a show like Saturday Night Live or any other show can’t do that kind of humor,” Boone agreed: “You cannot do blasphemy, yes.”
Boone, insisting [pseudo-liberal delinked] that “at least 90 percent of the American public” wants this kind of censorship, specifically said that SNL or any program that calls “God by some profane name” would be in violation of such a blasphemy restriction.
Boone spent the rest of his interview time wondering why Donald Trump is not still calling for President Obama’s birth certificate.
I slept very poorly last night. I had a lot on my mind. I scheduled my visit with Casey Eye Institute on 5/9. Dr. Skalet is an Ocular Oncologist, and she deals exclusively with eye cancer. Megan’s office called. they want me to get an MRI on my hands and see a Rheumatoid Arthritis Specialist. One might think I already had enough on my plate. Then, just as I was about to go to bed, my ISP went down. I don’t know why, but every time I dozed off, I woke up again and felt compelled to see, if I was reconnected. That went on until my Internet came back early this morning. Tomorrow I have PT with Courtney. Rain is forecast, so I have to take the lift bus. I may have no more than a Personal Update.
Jig Zone Puzzle:
Today’s took me 3:04 (average 4:54). To do it click here. How did you do?
He is trying to prove that, essentially, marriage between a same-sex couple can be equated to marriage between a man and a machine. He is trying to prove that, under Obergefell v. Hodges, the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that legalized same-sex marriage, people are now allowed to do morally disgusting things like marry whomever they are attracted to, whether that be inanimate objects or the same gender. Essentially, he is trying to give courts an ultimatum: Agree that this is what they have done and allow him to make vows to a piece of expensive chrome, or, realize that this is morally wrong and undo Obergefell.
It’s interesting that the only people every trying to marry things that are not human—the slippery slope so often referred to by conservatives everywhere—are conservatives themselves.
Dang!! Only a total pervert would want to marry his Mac! Any real red-blooded straight American would only marry a laptop running Windows!!
From NY Times: Curt Schilling, a former All-Star pitcher and one of the highest-profile baseball analysts on ESPN, was fired from the network Wednesday, a day after he drew intense criticism for promoting offensive commentary on social media.
The post showed an overweight man wearing a wig and women’s clothing with parts of the T-shirt cut out to expose his breasts. It says: “LET HIM IN! to the restroom with your daughter or else you’re a narrow-minded, judgmental, unloving racist bigot who needs to die.”
To that, Schilling added: “A man is a man no matter what they call themselves. I don’t care what they are, who they sleep with, men’s room was designed for the penis, women’s not so much. Now you need laws telling us differently? Pathetic.”
Kudos to ESPN!!
From Alternet: Wednesday night, Stephen Colbert opened a segment on the New York primary with these words: "Speaking of things money can buy, the 2016 election."
Julie just left. and I am a pleased and pristine puddy tat. She also gets a lot more done than Lu used to, so I’m thrilled with her. I have a grocery delivery coping this afternoon, so I’ll get to put everything away. It’s another hot muggy day, not at all normal for April in Oregon, where April showers bring May rain.
Today’s took me 3:06 (average 4:58), To do it, click here. How did you do?
In New York, Hollary posted an impressive 15 point spread. To win, Bernie needs 1193 more delegates. Hillary needs 452. To have the majority of pledged delegates, Bernie needs 875 more. Hillary needs 598 more.
From Daily Kos: Fox and other right-wing outlets have always used certain “go-to" logical fallacies in their ideological arguments: ad hominem, straw man, and non sequitur. (Actually, if you listen to any one of Trump’s speeches, you can usually hear examples of all three in the same speech.) Although the right wing still uses these the most, lately I have noticed the increased use of several uncommon fallacies that are becoming more and more common in conservative circles. Although there are literally hundreds of logical fallacies, I’m just going to focus on these few. Let’s begin …
1. ONUS IMPROBATIONIS (“Burden of disproof”)
This is a type of Ad ignorantiam, which is to claim something is true because it cannot be proven false. What this subcategory refers to is putting the burden on you to disprove their belief. The problem is that this is impossible. Decades ago, my statistics teacher gave me an example that I still remember: the Loch Ness Monster. Even if you somehow managed to drain the entire loch, and had teams of people scouring the ground, would that satisfy the believers? Of course not. They’d argue that the mythical beast just went into hiding, or was transported, or some other such nonsense.
I always think about this fallacy when I hear the Birthers. They are a PERFECT example. No amount of evidence will ever satisfy them: experts, analysis of the document, records, birth announcements in newspapers—nothing. I recalled seeing the segment below years ago and specifically searched for this because I really want you to hear what birther Alan Keyes says immediately after the host read through ALL of the evidence of Obama’s birth in Hawaii. It starts at the 1:10 mark. He says two words that blew my mind—and prove my point.
I promise it’s worth it:
TEAbuggery most foul!! This is the first of several logical fallacies (also called criminal thinking errors in my volunteer work in prison, or InsaniTEA in politics). Click through for the rest.
From The New Yorker: America’s racists, who have long viewed New York with a mixture of hostility, contempt, and fear, are suddenly feeling much more positive about the Empire State a cross-section of racists confirmed on Tuesday night.
In interviews conducted shortly after 9 P.M., racists from coast to coast echoed the opinion of Fresno, California, bigot Harland Dorrinson, who remarked, “You know, maybe New York isn’t such a bad place after all.”
“I always thought that New York seemed like a hellhole to be avoided at all costs,” Dorrinson said. “Now I’m thinking I might want to take the family there on vacation. Maybe even take in a few Broadway shows.”
Andy, most folks don’t realize that less then 10% of New York State residents are registered Republicans. This racist idiot fringe has been getting extra attention, because of the primary,
I’m getting a late start today, because I needed a cat nap, and I had a lot of scheduling to get done. I’m pleased to announce that the Squatch, Nameless and I have agreed to promote another person to our staff in the position of Author. I won’t actually come out and say who it is, but our new Author must get confused about whether to plant a bulb or kiss a roo.
Jig Zone Puzzle:
Today’s took me 3:02 (average 5:20). To do it, click here. How did you do?
From Daily Kos: Better than a transcript, here is an actual video of Hillary Clinton giving a speech at the Goldman Sachs 10,000 Women: Proving the Case for Women Entrepreneurs dinner. The video was posted October 22, 2014. I’m not sure if this is what Bernie Sanders is demanding (snark), but it does fit the three criteria, yes? Hillary Clinton, Goldman Sachs, and Speeches. This particular Hillary Clinton “unpaid” speech is about the empowerment of women — an issue the former U.S. Secretary of State has made a priority throughout her political career.
To be fair there were two ways this speech did not meet Bernie’s criteria. He wanted the speech to be paid. This was free. He wanted the speech to have been presented behind closed doors. This was not.
From TPM: Rep. Pete King (R-NY) went on a tear against the Republican presidential frontrunners in a blistering Tuesday interview on MSNBC’s “Morning Joe,” joking that he would commit suicide if Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX) earns the nomination.
“I’m not endorsing Ted Cruz, in case anyone is confused,” King said. “I think I’ll take cyanide if he got the nomination.
Cyanide? He will?!!? Dang!! Maybe there actually is a valid reason to support the TRUSed Uranus!!
From Common Dreams: The U.S. Supreme Court reportedly appeared divided on a challenge to President Barack Obama’s immigration executive actions, as a 90-minute oral argument session wrapped up on Monday afternoon.
The case, brought by 26 Republican-led states and spearheaded by Texas Governor Greg Abbott, concerns two deportation protections that would shield roughly 5 million undocumented parents of American citizens and legal residents, as well as about 100,000 people brought to the U.S. as children.
Now, with only eight members sitting on the panel following the death of Justice Antonin Scalia in February, the court could end in a 4-4 deadlock—which would leave in place a previous ruling by a lower court that blocked the plan, without setting a Supreme Court precedent.
This is a case where 4 – 4 equals SCROTUS, (Republican Constitutional VD).
Almost every week, Republicans join a competition to see who can say the most outlandish things, and in the process, they push the envelope on just how bad InsaniTEA can become. I trust that you will believe it, when I tell you that last week was no exception.
And from the lunatic Christian fringe, this just in.
The mystery of Stonehenge has been solved, at long last. Turns out that giants created by Satan built it.
Yeah, that makes sense.
This exciting revelation—and when we say "revelation" we mean it in the biblical sense—comes courtesy of televangelist Jim Bakker, who hosted one Dennis Lindsay [pseudo-Christian talibangelist delinked]on his program on Wednesday [pseudo-Christian talibangelist delinked] in order to discuss Lindsay’s latest "discovery" in the realm of Creation Science.
So what happened was, Satan made these giants who moved those big ol’ rocks into the structure we now call Stonehenge. That was pretty smart of Satan to create a supersized labor force.
That’s the reasonable part. Here’s how Lindsay explained how the devil wants to destroy God’s creation, Israel, and "contaminate the whole human race," per RightWingWatch:
Satan wants to “have his own seed and make his own family,” Lindsay explained, and so he created a race of giants who would attack Israel.
“He build his little squatter’s hut up there on the Temple Mount, you know that temple, because he knows what the Bible says about that place,” he said. “I weaved through why and what is the evidence for giant beings on this earth. We all know about Stonehenge, right? That’s just one of hundreds and hundreds of gigantic places around the world that testify that some sort of supernatural power or giants were involved in its construction.”
So there you have it. Satan has a "squatter’s hut" and you have Satan’s giants to thank for those all those "gigantic places in the world."…
I have one major bone to pick with this author for calling these nut-jobs “the lunatic Christian fringe”. They are Republican Supply-side pseudo-Christians. Nothing could be further from authentic Christians. They are as representative of Christianity as the Daesh is of Islam: not at all!
That said, this is the fifth of five worst Republican moments listed from last week alone. Click through for the other four.